For the north and east Armenia is actually bounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan, while their neighbours on southeast and western are, correspondingly, Iran and chicken. Naxc?van, an exclave of Azerbaijan, boundaries Armenia towards southwest. The capital try Yerevan (Erevan).
Modern Armenia includes only a tiny portion of ancient Armenia, the world’s earliest centres of culture. At their peak, Armenia longer through the south-central dark Sea coast into Caspian ocean and through the Mediterranean Sea to pond Urmia in present-day Iran. Classic Armenia got afflicted by continuous international incursions, eventually losing their autonomy inside the 14th 100 years ce . The centuries-long rule of Ottoman and Persian conquerors imperiled ab muscles existence regarding the Armenian people. Eastern Armenia had been annexed by Russia through the 19th 100 years, while american Armenia stayed under Ottoman tip, along with 1894–96 and 1915 the Ottoman national perpetrated methodical massacres and forced deportations of Armenians.
The portion of Armenia sleeping around the former Russian Empire declared liberty on 28, 1918, but in 1920 it had been invaded by causes from chicken and Soviet Russia. The Soviet Republic of Armenia was actually demonstrated on November 29, 1920; in 1922 Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic; plus in 1936 this republic ended up being demolished and escort Pittsburgh Armenia turned a constituent (union) republic in the Soviet Union. Armenia stated sovereignty on August 23, 1990, and liberty on September 23, 1991.
The position of Nagorno-Karabakh (also referred to as Artsakh), an enclave of 1,700 square kilometers (4,400 square kilometres) in southwest Azerbaijan filled primarily by ethnic Armenians, got from 1988 the origin of sour conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan. From the mid-1990s Karabakh Armenian forces have occupied a lot of southwest Azerbaijan, but, after a devastating war in 2020, these were required to withdraw from most of that place.
Armenia are a mountainous nation described as a good many landscape and geologic instability. The typical level was 5,900 legs (1,800 metres) above sea-level. There aren’t any lowlands: half the area consist at elevations of 3,300 to 6,600 legs; no more than one-tenth lies below the 3,300-foot mark.
The northwestern a portion of the Armenian Highland—containing Mount Aragats (Alaghez), the greatest peak (13,418 legs, or 4,090 metres) in the united states—is a variety of lofty mountain selections, strong lake valleys, and lava plateaus dotted with extinct volcanoes. Toward north and east, the Somkhet, Bazum, Pambak, Gugark, Areguni, Shakhdag, and Vardenis range for the less Caucasus lie across the north sector of Armenia. Elevated eruptive plateaus (Lory, Shirak, yet others), reduce by strong river valleys, lie amid these ranges.
Within the east element of Armenia, the Sevan Basin, that contain pond Sevan (525 rectangular miles) and hemmed-in by ranges soaring up to 11,800 base, is at a level of approximately 6,200 feet. Inside the southwest, extreme depression—the Ararat Plain—lies at the leg of Mount Aragats and also the Geghama array; the Aras River cuts this essential plain into halves, the northern half lying in Armenia while the south in poultry and Iran.
Armenia was at the mercy of detrimental earthquakes. On December 7, 1988, a quake damaged the northwestern town of Spitak and brought about serious damage to Leninakan (now Gyumri), Armenia’s second most populated urban area. About 25,000 everyone was killed.
Of overall precipitation, some two-thirds is actually evaporated, and one-third percolates into the stones, notably the eruptive stones, that are permeable and fissured. Many streams in Armenia were short and turbulent with many rapids and falls. Water stage is highest whenever accumulated snow melts inside spring season and during the autumn months rainfall. Due to substantial difference in elevation along their particular size, some rivers posses big hydroelectric prospective.
All the canals belong to the water drainage area of the Aras (by itself a tributary of the Kura River from the Caspian Basin), which, for 300 miles (480 kms), types a normal boundary between Armenia and poultry and Iran.
The Aras’ major left-bank tributaries, the Akhuryan (130 miles), the Hrazdan (90 kilometers), the Arpa (80 miles), together with Vorotan (Bargyushad; 111 miles), are designed to irrigate almost all of Armenia. The tributaries of the Kura—the Debed (109 miles), the Aghstev (80 miles), and others—pass through Armenia’s northeastern areas. Pond Sevan, with a capacity in excess of 9 cubic kilometers (39 cubic kilometres) of water, is given by a lot of canals, but just the Hrazdan departs their boundaries.
Armenia is actually full of springs and wells, some of which have medicinal qualities.